• Period: 17th Mar - 9th May 2021
  • Location: Culture Station 284
  • Organizer: Junglim Foundation
  • Commissioner: Korea Craft & Design Foundation
  • Exhibitors: Kim Boyong, Kim Juree, Kim Taedong, Kim Hwang, Rhaomi, Mat-kkal, BARE, Seo Hyun-suk, Shin Jehyun, Lee Wonho, Lee Juyong, Lee Haevan, Yim Dongwoo, Jun Sojung, Chung Soyoung, Choi Yun, Corners Studio, Huang Haobin
  • https://borderless-site.junglim.org


The Border-less.site exhibition was developed as part of Culture Station Seoul 284’s regional research/exhibition initiative; an initiative that has previously included DMZ (2019) and Gaeseong Industrial Complex (2018). The Gyeongui train line from Seoul Station would have stopped at Gaeseong, Pyongyang, Sinuiju, Dandong, and Beijing via the Dorasan Station in Paju, and it therefore feels like a natural step that Sinuiju and Dandong have been highlighted following the two preceding projects.

With the Amrok River (Yalu River in Chinese) running between them, Sinuiju and Dandong are border areas where official and unofficial exchanges actively take place. They are military and diplomatic hubs of both the Korean peninsula and China, where the diplomatic emissaries of both countries travelled back and forth more than 1,000 times during the 600 years of the Joseon Dynasty. During the period of Japanese colonial rule, the Supung Dam, a hydroelectric dam, was built in the uppermiddle reaches of the Amrok River, and now forms a site of cooperation jointly managed by North Korea and China. The dam and surrounding areas are also a gateway to the international market, where most of North Korea’s foreign cooperation and exchange takes place. On the other hand, they bear a red mark, symbolising the imperfection of these ideologies.

Sinuiju and Dandong, where a borderless border is drawn and where traces of active exchanges and border crossings, still have various implications today. In particular, direct shipping companies from Pyongyang still thrive in Dandong, and people from all parts of China gather for day trips to Sinuiju. In addition, inhabitants include South and North Koreans, Joseonjok (ethnic Koreans living in China), and North Korean Hwagyo (ethnic Chinese residents in North Korea), who all make phone calls to Pyongyang or Seoul on their Samsung mobile phones. The proportion of residents who maintain loose relationships centered around the Korean language increases or decreases depending on the ups and downs of inter-Korean relations, but the dynamic exchange between the regions remains strong. Nevertheless, Dandong remains a city that is not very well known to most South Koreans. It is occasionally mentioned in history textbooks, or in news from North Korea, but not very often. Rather, it is one of those places about which we have a large amount of misinformation, but where we do not attempt to know the truth. It was therefore interesting to revisit the meaning of the ‘borderless border’ via the various artworks and to recall the imagination evoked around crossing the border, much of which has long been rejected.

The Covid-19 pandemic has prompted calls for alternatives to neoliberal globalization. The autonomy of local communities and their local networks are mentioned as one such of these alternatives. The curatorial team believe that the symbiotic relationship between Sinuiju and Dandong, which corresponds to the potentially rapid-changing political and economic landscapes in post-pandemic Northeast Asia, will not only serve to make them ‘shared hub cities’, but will also greatly contribute to peace in the region. As curators, we hope that a careful examination of the two cities, both of which retain the traces of exchanges between the two Koreas, and between Korea and China, and Japan and Russia, will bring up meaningful questions around the need to find new possibilities at a time when attitudes of courage and wisdom toward change are necessary. This is because we believe that the locality of the disorderly border contains creativity.

This exhibition began with research into various fields, including sociology, cultural anthropology, and architecture history in the Sinuiju-Dandong area. Last year, Professor Park Woo of Hansung University analyzed the 100-year history of Manchuria from the perspective of a sociologist, while architectural historian Professor Ahn Changmo examined the past and the present of the two cities through data collection and research around the urban development processes, including the history of the Gyeongui line railways, of Dandong’s Modern Architecture, and of Supung Dam. In addition, the curatorial team and participating artists undertook several field trips to the area, accompanied by Dr. Kang Ju-Won of the Department of Anthropology at Seoul National University. Eighteen artists attempted to connect us to the Other, among the Other: through experiencing life in the major border areas in Dandong, only half a day’s travel from Seoul, and by inviting ‘the close Other’ there to their artworks.

Following the traces of border-crossing here is like hearing a faint radio signal, which becomes strong and clear when in the presence of these twin cities, and which then fades into faint noise upon leaving. It has been this way for a long time. Amid the confusion of the signal and noise, we observe that the value of ‘prosperity together’ has eventually been written off as a one-off event in history, and that dreaming beyond the border still proves to be difficult. However, the messages of connection and togetherness are still alive. Therefore, we wanted to examine the implications of Sinuiju and Dandong, cities which developed side by side for a long time, from various perspectives, and in doing so to find the possibilities and meanings of crossing the boundary through boundless artistic imagination. We must cross the bridge of irony and cynicism, in the face of any risk.



  • Organizer: Junglim Foundation
  • Commissioner: Korea Craft & Design Foundation
  • Art director: Park Seongtae 
  • Curator: Kim Bo-hyun 
  • Invited Curator: Kim Seonghee
  • Assistant Curator: Lee Junyoung, Choi Goeun
  • Researcher: Ahn Changmo
  • Design: Gang Moonsick
  • Translation: Yes More Translation
  • Exhibitors: Kim Boyong, Kim Juree, Kim Taedong, Kim Hwang, Rhaomi, Mat-kkal, BARE, Seo Hyun-suk, Shin Jehyun, Lee Wonho, Lee Juyong, Lee Haevan, Yim Dongwoo, Jun Sojung, Chung Soyoung, Choi Yun, Corners Studio, Huang Haobin

Spectres of the State Avant-garde

Spectres of the State Avant-garde explores the complex relationship between modern architecture and the state. Insofar as the late 1960s were the origin of both Seoul’s urban structure and various state institutions and systems, it was a period when the ideology of the state and the vision of architects became intertwined. For South Korean architects dreaming of utopian ideals, the oppressive developmental state paradoxically provided the only viable platform for showcasing their imaginative prowess. Through the juxtaposition of the contradictory terms “state” and “avant-garde”, this exhibition focuses on KECC, or the Korea Engineering Consultants Corporation, to highlight the schism between political power and imagination and the contradiction between political system and utopian ideals.


KECC, a technical consultancy for architecture and civil engineering established by the government in 1965, was responsible for the construction of major state-led development projects, from ports, waterworks, bridges, and other infrastructure to architectural works such as Sewoon Sangga and expo pavilions. Their visions at times mimicked the radical architectural experiments of the West, but more often assumed an extremely pragmatic attitude in line with the nation’s development agenda and became the prototype for Seoul’s underlying structure and Korea’s urban planning paradigm. Yet, despite its leading role in the urbanization and industrialization of Korea, research on the history, activities, and personalities of KECC have not been carried out in earnest and remain only as fragments of memory. This exhibition begins from this unwritten history and unrecorded memory.


Spectres of the State Avant-garde puts on exhibit dislocated time; pasts, which were not systematically gathered or categorized, are summoned, while at the same time new possibilities for the future sought. In the absence of faithful archives, the exhibition refers to the projects of KECC as spectres or ghosts, going back and forth between the mythical origin of Korean modern architecture and a Faustian bargain. A spectre refers to a past that has influence over the present but hasn’t been captured, an entity that suddenly haunts but whose substance is uncertain. In the recent discourse about spectralities, and according to the tradition of Confucianism, to summon ghosts is to ask about the present’s responsibility for the past. In other words, rather than just recording the past or recreating it retrospectively, this exhibition seeks to explore the possibility of the future by going through the problem’s origin.


To this end, the Korean Pavilion focuses on the contradictions and paradoxes that are embedded in the KECC projects from the 1960s. The EXPO ’70 Korean Pavilion, which once questioned Korean identity in the context of international society, provides an opportunity to ask after the national identity of contemporary Korea, which has ceased to be a mono-ethnic nation-state. Yeouido, an island on the Han River, which functioned as both a utopian city and a theater for military parades, becomes a platform to reconsider the possibility of public spaces that disappeared during the course of modernization. Through Sewoon Sannga in the Jongno district, which was expected to trigger downtown redevelopment but, paradoxically, became a harbor wall against gentrification, the exhibition focuses on the potential of the megastructure. And lastly, the exhibition traces back the history of transmigrant laborers who sustained Korean capitalism through the Guro district of Seoul, which became a residential area for low-wage workers after a temporary structure was built for a fair. The Korean Pavilion 2018 intends to present the fragmentary clues acquired from this process as new seeds for the future.

  • Sungwoo Kim (N.E.E.D. Architecture) - The City of Radical Shift
  • Jinhong Jeon, Yunhee Choi (BARE—Bureau of Architecture, Research & Environment) - Dream Cells
  • Hyun Seok Kang, Gunho Kim (SGHS) - Building States
  • Choon Choi - Autopsy of the Future
  • Kyoungtae Kim (EH) - Reference Points 
  • Hyun-Suk Seo - Fantastic City
  • Jidon Jung - Light from Anywhere



  • Curator: Seongtae Park
  • Co-curators: Choon Choi, Junghyun Park, Dahyoung Chung
  • Exhibitors: Choon Choi, Hyun Seok Kang, Gunho Kim, Hyun-Suk Seo, Jidon Jung, Jinhong Jeon, Yunhee Choi, Kyoungtae Kim (EH), Sungwoo Kim 
  • Exhibition team: Heejung Kim, Sungkyu Jung, Yongju Kim, studio fnt, Sangho Kim, Jane Misun Shim
  • Construction Supervisor & Korean Pavilion Manager: Eunjeong Kim
  • Essay Contributors: Changmo Ahn, Chunghoon Shin, Hyonkyong Kim, Hyunjung Cho, Jeong Hye Kim, Nanhyoung Kang, Taehun Lim, Laurent Pereira
  • Advisory Group: Kilyong Park, Changmo Ahn, Jienne Liu, Youngok Kim
  • Commissioner: Arts Council Korea
  • Sponsors: SK, Amorepacific, Joosung Design Lab, Asiana Airlines, LH (Korea Land & Housing Corporation), Junglim Architecture, Haeahn Architecture, One O One Architects, The_System Lab, Duomo & Co.
  • Partner: Junglim Foundation


  • Period: 12th - 23rd Dec 2017
  • Location: On Ground, Seoul, Korea
  • Exhibitors: N.E.E.D. Architecture (Sungwoo Kim), a round Architecture (Changhyun Park), Mundohoje (Taebyoung Yim), SoA (Chihoon Lee), BCHO Architects Associates (Byoung Cho), 0_1 Studio (Jaewon Cho) x 00 Ground


We have undergone a period of rapid growth over the past 50 years. However, we find ourselves still ensnared in growth-oriented and expansionist mindsets. Nevertheless, data indicates a concerning drift away from the pursuit of a fulfilling life. Demographic trends, such as declining birth rates and the rise of single-person households, underscore this shift. Last year's number of newborns was a mere quarter of what it was in 1971. Single-person households now comprise nearly 30% of the population, exceeding 50% among those under 40 and predicted to reach 40% of the population by 2035. What future awaits communities without the vitality of children?


Demographic shifts inevitably trigger changes not only in social structures but also in economic and cultural landscapes. As we transition to a degrowth society, the potential growth rate declines while the number of young laborers shrinks and the elderly population requiring support swells. The influx of foreign workers to fill this void will introduce further complexities and challenges. With growing inequality and social unrest, the state's responsibility will expand into new realms of life. Some local cities in South Korea, experiencing rapid population decline, may face extinction, necessitating sacrifices from all citizens for their revival.


Profound questions beckon our attention. Is a life without marriage, children, and solitary living truly fulfilling? How do we combat the profound loneliness and social isolation inherent in rampant individualism within communities? How can we resurrect the ethos of collective ownership and communal living? These questions defy easy answers and demand multidimensional perspectives and concrete solutions. Social transformation cannot be passively accepted or rejected; rather, we must collectively deliberate on how to redefine interpersonal relationships, the essence of communal living, and the evolving urban and architectural landscapes in response to these challenges.


Addressing the quandaries surrounding new communities requires time and collective effort. Eventually, disparate sparks of insight will coalesce into a formidable force shaping our lives. Thus, the wisdom of transforming personal concerns into communal endeavors is imperative. We have assembled the works and musings of architects who have grappled with these issues, discerning shifts in our societal fabric and technological environment through artistic sensibilities. These fragments will serve as catalysts, igniting further inspiration. Though our vision may seem modest, nurturing these sparks is vital, prompting us to open this forum for collective dialogue and exploration.


  • From Complexes to Neighborhoods - N.E.E.D. Architecture (Sungwoo Kim)
  • Psychological Boundaries - a round Architecture (Changhyun Park)
  • Sensory Occupation - Mundohoje (Taebyoung Yim)
  • Living in Library - SoA (Chihoon Lee)
  • The Coexistence of Dualities; Individualistic Openness - BCHO Architects Associates (Byoung Cho)
  • From Space to Shared Space - 0_1 Studio (Jaewon Cho) x 00 Ground


  • Curator: Seongtae Park
  • Coordinator: Jini Choi, Sangho Kim
  • Exhibitors: N.E.E.D. Architecture (Sungwoo Kim), a round Architecture (Changhyun Park), Mundohoje (Taebyoung Yim), SoA (Chihoon Lee), BCHO Architects Associates (Byoung Cho), 01 Studio (Jaewon Cho) x 00 Ground
  • Photography: Raya
  • Furniture design: smallstudiosemi
  • Partner: On Ground
  • Organizer: Junglim Foundation
  • Sponsors: Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism, Seoul Metropolitan Government, Seoul Foundation for Arts and Culture

New Shelters

  • Period: 8th July - 7th Aug 2016
  • Location: ARKO Art Center, Seoul
  • Organizer: Junglim Foundation
  • Committee: Arts Council Korea
  • Exhibitors: Chanjoong Kim, RARE Collective, Changhyun Park, SoA, Doojin Hwang


The exhibition highlights the plight of individuals who have been forced to flee their homes due to war, persecution, and violence. These individuals, known as refugees, undertake dangerous journeys, facing inhumane discrimination along the way. Despite the risks involved, the number of involuntary migrants continues to rise, with approximately 60 million people seeking new homes by 2015. Syria alone accounts for half of its population being refugees or displaced persons. The process of finding new settlements has also become prolonged, with no end in sight to the refugee crisis. Moreover, women are particularly vulnerable to physical dangers such as sexual violence, further disrupting the lives of ordinary people due to someone else's greed.


In contrast, Korean society remains somewhat removed from the refugee issue. Social experiences with multiculturalism are limited, and institutional mechanisms are inadequate. While the number of refugee applicants has exceeded 15,000, only around 580 individuals have been granted refugee status, resulting in a recognition rate of less than 4%. This reluctance to welcome those different from us, those lacking the power to protect themselves, reflects a sense of stinginess. They are often viewed as burdens to society rather than individuals in need of assistance. Meanwhile, terms like ‘youth refugees’ and ‘housing refugees’ have emerged in our society, with some even attempting to displace them from their originally settled areas.


Although this exhibition is subtitled ‘Architectural Proposals for Refugees,’ it does not solely present rigid constructional works. Instead, architects and collaborative partners come together to raise new questions about those marginalized in our society. They envision new dwellings in a world where violence against minorities is normalized, inclusively embrace the marginalized within our community, and advocate for solidarity among those lacking the power to protect themselves.


  • BIG DATA SHELTERING: Chanjoong Kim (The_system lab) with Kyoungok Kim (Data specialist, Seoul National University of Science & Technology), Jinsook Park (Activist, EcoFemme)
  • Open Your Yard & Open Your Heart: RARE Collective (Choon Choi, Seungho Choi, Changyeon Pyo) with KARA (Korea Animal Rights Advocates)
  • Refugee Plants, Vegetable Refugees: Changhyun Park (a round architects) with Soohag Lee (Landscape architecture, Atelier Namoo), Seonghoon Jeong (Aelim Landscape)
  • Re-settling: SoA (Yerin Kang, Jaewon Lee, Chihoon Lee) with Hyunmi Kim (Cultural anthropologist, Yonsei University)
  • The Interim Buffer Zone: Doojin Hwang (Doojin Hwang Architects) with Uk Yang (Military security researcher)


  • Director: Seongtae Park
  • Invited Curator: Heechae Moon
  • Exhibitor: Chanjoong Kim, RARE Collective, Changhyun Park, SoA, Doojin Hwang
  • Video artists: Jaewoo Oh, Jiryang Cha
  • Coordinator: Kyunghee Lee
  • Scenography: Zerolab
  • Design: studio fnt
  • Publication: Propaganda

Neighborhood Bookstore

  • Period: 23rd Mar - 11th Apr 2016
  • Location: Roundabout, Junglim Foundation Lounge, Seoul


To rejuvenate the community, we reframe the concept of ‘community’ as ‘Com-munus,’ derived from Latin, signifying ‘sharing gifts.’ Inaugurating the ‘Neighborhood Bookstore Series,’ the first pop-up bookstore, titled Neighborhood Bookstore, 100 Books, will open at Junglim Foundation’s Tongui-dong Lounge, Roundabout. This endeavor aims to foster new knowledge exchange and community interaction.


Throughout the exhibition, a curated selection of 100 recommended books will be available for exchange. Visitors to Roundabout are invited to freely peruse and swap books from this collection, contributed by 100 individuals. Any remaining books will be returned to their original donors. Details on the book exchange process and recommended readings will be shared on the Roundabout Facebook page.


Central to this initiative is not anonymous transactions, but rather the interpersonal connections forged through shared books and stories. We encourage active engagement in this endeavor to revitalize a sense of solidarity, transcending the pervasive influence of market capitalism.

Mr. Pavilion Is Coming to Town

  • Period: 13th - 23rd May 2015
  • Location: Space Feelux, ARKO Art Center, Seoul
  • Exhibitors: AnL studio, Kwangsoo Kim, Sanghoon Youm, Kyung-Ju Hwang
  • Committee: Arts Council Korea, Junglim Foundation


Junglim Foundation, in partnership with the Arts Council Korea (ARKO), is launching the interdisciplinary collaborative project titled Mr. Pavilion is coming to Town.

This initiative involves four teams of architects: Kwangsoo Kim, Kyung-Ju Hwang, AnLstudio, and Sanghoon Youm. It is part of ARKO's ongoing “Marginalized Areas Cultural Tour Program,” which focuses on creating “outreach performance programs.” The project entails setting up temporary performance venues in specific regions for a designated period, with the aim of exploring ways to repurpose these spaces for village meetings, festivals, and recreational activities.

Unlike traditional structural fabrication, this project integrates artists, architects, and structural experts to fuse innovative ideas, new materials, and technologies. The goal is to transform the structures into platforms for unique cultural and artistic experiences. Through this initiative, movable communal spaces will be developed to enhance interactions within and between communities, providing spaces where villagers can sing, dance, recite poetry, and create art together.

In addition to showcasing the research conducted thus far, the exhibition will feature a presentation during the opening event to engage a wider audience and facilitate discussions on relevant topics. The project aims to produce and utilize structures based on the needs of the operating body and the local community, without undergoing a separate selection process.

Co-living Scenarios

At present, a majority of Koreans live in cities, with over 25% of the population living as ‘singles’ since the proportion of one-person households has skyrocketed in recent years. Such a social change has led to the disintegration of ‘the family’ and ‘the community’ as we used to understand them. However, new patterns of life and new concepts in space occupancy are being gradually disseminated throughout society. It is believed that this phenomenon attests to the fact that our society requires the emergence of a new type of family, a loose tie among community members, and a new concept community.


Co-living Scenarios raises the questions and suggests solutions for the dwelling culture and associated phenomena of our time with 9 invited architects/teams. We hope that this project, with the aid of the great architectural imagination of our panel of architects, will serve as an invaluable opportunity to discuss such issues as ‘the values of co-living’ and ‘the self-reliance of communities’ in an urban environment where the concepts of sharing and community are losing their persuasive power.


  • C BAR_Daily C BAR
  • QJK_Apartment
  • PaTI+Young Chul Jang_ Documentary
  • Youngok Kim_3rd SCAPE
  • Seungsoo Shin x Seungjong Yoo_Our Home / My City
  • Kerl Yoo_Pebble & Bubble
  • Namho Cho_Vertical Village Inauguration Day
  • Jaewon Cho_Serendipitous Community Dwellings
  • Doojin Hwang_Green Porosity: Three-dimensional Urban Farming


  • Organizer: Junglim Foundation, Seoul Museum of Art
  • Exhibitors: C BAR, Doojin Hwang, Jaewon Cho, Kerl Yoo, Namho Cho, QJK, Seungsoo Shin x Seungjong Yoo, Young Chul Jang x Sook Hee Chun, Youngok Kim
  • Sponsor: Arts Council Korea
  • Design: studio fnt
  • Scenography: Soosung Lee